ILLICIT ECONOMIES IN THE AMAZON: A CHALLENGE FOR GOVERNABILITY IN PERU, BRAZIL AND COLOMBIA

Abstract

Illicit economies such as illegal extractivism of natural resources or wildlife trafficking are new challenges for governability. From this starting point, the research aims to analyze social, political, environmental, economic and normative factors of the informal economies in the Amazon basin. The emphasis is placed on the triple border between Brazil, Peru and Colombia, in relation to its impact on political institutionalism. The application of a qualitative analysis based on primary sources infers that policy measures and regulations attuned to environmental crime to ensure social control and protection of biodiversity are still scarce
https://doi.org/10.3232/GCG.2018.V12.N1.01
PDF (Español (España))

References

Aklin,M. et.al. (2014). “Who blames corruption for the poor enforcement of environmental laws? Survey evidence from Brazil”, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Num.16, pp.241-26. doi:10.1007/s10018-014-0076-z

Altamonte, H. y Sánchez, R. (2016). Hacia una nueva gobernanza de los recursos naturales en América Latina y el Caribe, CEPAL, Num.139, Santiago de Chile.

Andreas, P. (2015). “International Politics and the Illicit Global Economy”, Perspectives on Politics, Vol.13,Num.3, pp.782-788. doi:10.1017/S1537592715001358

Asociación para la Conservación de la Cuenca Amazónica (2016). Patrones y drivers de deforestación en la Amazonía Peruana, MAAP Síntesis, Num.2.

Bergenas, J. y Knight, A. (2015). “Green Terror: Environmental Crime and Illicit Financing”, SAIS Review, Vol.35, Num.1, pp.119-131.

Boekhout van Solinge, T. (2010). “Deforestation Crimes and Conflicts in the Amazon”, Critical Criminology, Num.18, pp.263-277. DOI 10.1007/s10612-010-9120-x

Borges de Lima, I. y Buszynski, L. (2011). “Local environmental governance, public policies and deforestation in the Amazonia”, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol.22, Num.3, pp.292-316.

Brisman, A. (2013). “The violence of silence: some reflection on access to information, public participation in decision-making, and access to justice in matters concerning the environment”, Crime, Law and Social Change, Num.59, pp.291-303, DOI 10.1007/s10611-013-9416-3

Brisman, A. and South, N. (2015). “An Assesment of Tonry and Farrington´s Four Major Crime Prevention Strategies as Applied to Environmental Crime and Harm”, Journal of Criminal Justice and Security. VARSTVOSLOVJE, Vol.17, Num.2, pp.127-151.

Cheyre, J.E. (2015). “Las amenazas a la seguridad en América Latina”, Revista de Globalización, Competitividad y Gobernabilidad, Georgetown University- Universia, Vol.9, Nº1, pp.51-73. DOI 10.3232/GCG.2015.V9.N1.03

Cope, J. y Parks,A. (2016). Frontier Security: The Case of Brazil, National Defense University Press, Washington D.C.

Dargent,E. y Urteaga,M. (2016). “Respuesta estatal por presiones externas: los determinantes del fortalecimiento estatal frente al boom del oro en el Perú (2004-2015)”, Revista de Ciencia Política, Vol.36, Num.3, pp.655-677.

Finer M; Novoa S; Olexy T; y Scott A. (2017). Good News Deforestation Stories (Peruvian Amazon). MAAP, Nº64.

Foy Valencia, P. (2010). “Consideraciones ambientales sobre el proceso penal”, Derecho PUCP, Num.65, pp.211-220.

Gaworeki, M. (2017). “Colombia expands indigenous reserves near key deforestation hotspot”, Mongabay. News & Inspiration from Nature´s Frontline, July 14th.

Global Initiative Against Transnational Crime (2016). El Crimen Organizado y la Minería Ilegal del Oro en América Latina, GIATC, Geneva.

INTERPOL/UNEP (2016). Strategic Report. Environment, Peace and Security: Convergence of Threats, s/l, December.

International Crisis Group (2017). Los grupos armados de Colombia y su disputa por el botín de la paz, Informe sobre América Latina Num.63, ICG, Brussels.

Hannigan, J. (2009). Sociologia Ambiental. Editora Vozes, Rio de Janeiro.

Hettler, B; Thieme, A; y Finer, M. (2017). Deforestation Patterns in the Colombian Amazon, MAAP Colombia.

Lahuerta, M. (2010). “Good Governance, Culture of Transgression and Democracy´s Quality in Brazil”, Cordeiro Pires, M. and Paulino, L., The Challenge of Good Governance, UNESP-Cultura Académica Editora, São Paulo.

López, N.y Tuesta, D. (2015). “Economías ilícitas y orden social: la frontera de Perú, Brasil y Colombia”, Revista CIDOB d´Affers Internacionals, Num.111, pp79-104.

Malamud, M. (2006). “Gobernabilidad y seguridad en América Latina: el valor de las instituciones democráticas”, Security & Defense Studies Review, VOl.7, pp.221-231.

Martínez Alier, J. (2007). O Ecologismo Dos Pobres. Editora Contexto, São Paulo.

Mello Sant´Anna, F. y Margarido Moreira,H. (2016). “Ecologia política e relações internacionais: os desafios da Ecopolítica Crítica Internacional”, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Politica, Num.20, pp.205-248. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-335220162006

Mishra, P.K. (2017). “Green Economy: A Panacea for Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction”, Journal of International Economics, Vol.8, Nº1, pp.19-28.

Morgera, E. and Savaresi, A. (2013). “A Conceptual and Legal Perspective on the Green Economy”,Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, Vol.22, Num.1, pp.14-28.

OECD (2016). Illicit Trade: Converging Criminal Networks, OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Ocampo Rodriguez, D. (2015). “Fronteras porosas. La minería ilegal y el narcotráfico como amenazas latentes a la seguridad”. Ciencia y Poder Aéreo. Revista Científica de la Escuela de Postgrados de la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana, Vol.1, Enero-Diciembre, pp.142-149.

Palermo, V. (2016). “ Brazilian Political Institutions: an Inconclusive Debate”. Brazilian Political Science Review, Vol.10, Num.2, pp.1-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1981-38212016000200003

Ramírez, S. (2017) “Así influye el cambio climático en el Amazonas”, Diario El Espectador, 4 de junio. Consultado el 17 de agosto de 2017. http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/medio-ambiente/asi-influye-el-cambio-climatico-en-la-amazonia-articulo-696859

Reuter, P. (2017). Illicit Financial Flows and Governance: The Importance of Disaggregation, World Development Report, Background Paper Governance and the Law, World Bank, Washington DC.

Sánchez Zapata, S. (2014). “La protección penal del medio ambiente: análisis del Art.338 del CP Colombiano sobre la minería ilegal”, Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental, pp.1-22.

Salisbury, D., y Fagan,C. (2013). “Coca and conservation: cultivation, eradication, and trafficking in the Amazon borderlands”, GeoJournal, Vol.78, Num.41, pp.41-60.

Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental (2015). Las rutas del oro ilegal. Estudios de caso en cinco países, SPDA, Lima.

UNODC. (2017). World Drug Report, UNODC, Viena, p.58.

Vázquez, P. (2014). Oír Sparks in the Amazon. Local Conflicts, Indigenous Populations and Natural Resources, University of Georgia Press, Bogart.

Wright, G. (2011). “Conceptualising and combating transnational environmental crime”, Trends in Organized Crime, Num.14, pp.332-346.

Zárate Botía, C. (2017) “Estado, conflictos ambientales y violencia en la frontera Amazónica de Brasil, Colombia y Perú”. Revista de Paz y Conflictos, Vol.10., Num.1, pp.113-136.