In the first article, professors Elena Fernández-Rodríguez and Antonio Martínez-Arias (University of Oviedo, Spain) analyse the determining factors as to why a company presents Negative Taxable Income. To this end, the research uses data relating to 119 companies listed in Spain during 2004-2011, four years before and four years after the economic crisis, and a logit model is applied for panel data. The results indicate that since the beginning of the crisis the number of companies presenting Negative Taxable Income has increased considerably. For the authors, the estimates show that the presence of Negative Taxable Income depends on accounting manipulation, the presence of accounting losses, if the entity is in a dissolution process, the history of tax losses, fixed assets, profitability, differences between Accounting and Taxation and the compensation of Negative Taxable Income from previous years.
Willmer Guevara Ramírez (University of Technology of Chile, INACAP.Chile) and Cristian Morales Letzkus (Catholic University of the North, Chile) analyse the evolution of competitiveness for the main products exported by Chile and Peru to their main markets during the period of 2007-2016, through the specialisation and competitiveness indicators from the Competitive Analysis of Nations (CAN) methodology. According to the authors, the most important categories where Chile and Peru compete are copper ores, refined copper, gold, iron ores and grapes, representing approximately 50% of exports for both countries. They conclude that Chile fared better for competitiveness in the Iron Minerals categories in China and that Peru has better competitiveness in refined Copper, Copper Minerals, and Grapes.
The research conducted by Anna Camila Lima e Silva, Fernanda Cristina Barbosa Pereira Queiroz, Jamerson Viegas Queiroz, Fabrícia Gonçalves Carvalho, from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, (Brazil), and Eduardo Lopes Marques (Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil) aims to identify the relationship between the variables that benefit the organisational performance of Brazilian startups associated with the Brazilian Startup Association (ABStartup). Using a Structural Equations Model, the authors identified that market orientation, although important for startups, does not influence organisational performance, although it does positively influence the innovative capacity of the product. They also verified that there is a positive relationship between the innovative capacity of the product and organisational performance.
The combination of an industry's specific competitive advantages with a nation's comparative advantages creates an enabling environment for development. Adriana Fumi Chim-Miki (Federal University of Campina Grande, Brazil) and Thays Cristina Domareski-Ruiz (Federal University of Paraná, Brazil) analyse the factors of the business environment considering the impact of the macroeconomic situation on the tourism sector. A regression analysis verified the significance of 14 variables from Pillar 1 of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) through a sample of 126 countries using the country's stage of economic development as a control variable. The results indicate that the main obstacles to a competitive business environment are related to administrative requirements, bureaucracy, bidding processes and corruption.
In the following article, José Satsumi López-Morales (Technological Institute of Veracruz, Mexico) and Karla María Nava-Aguirre (University of Monterrey, Mexico) analyse the internationalisation process of a state-owned company, specifically the case of Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) in Mexico through the Uppsala Model. For the authors, the results confirm that PEMEX used a gradual and sequential internationalisation model to obtain experience through exports, the establishment of offices and branches abroad, the creation of subsidiary companies and strategic alliances. The authors conclude that knowledge is acquired through experience in the first stage of internationalisation and that this knowledge can be acquired in the external environment through some networks and business relationships.
Logistics performance is one of the key factors in international trade, as economies with a higher level of logistics development grow faster. In the last article of this issue, Beatriz López-Bermúdez, María Jesús Freire Seoane, and Ignacio de la Peña Zarzuelo (University of A Coruña, Spain) analyse the ports of the West Coast of Latin America (2008 to 2017), proposing two objectives: on the one hand, to identify whether there are external factors that may influence production and, on the other, to determine the factors involved in making a given port more or less efficient, and to quantify the level of technical efficiency within the ports using a stochastic frontier analysis methodology with panel data.
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